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Evidence Synthesis

This guide provides an introduction to evidence synthesis as it is understood in evidence-based practice. clinical research and healthcare policy arenas.

Mixed Methods Evidence Synthesis

Types of Mixed Methods Evidence Synthesis

  • Integrative Reviews
  • Qualitative Metasummary  

Integrative Review Examples

Writing an Integrative Literature Review 

The first of four videos introducing the audience to the integrative reviews.

The integrative review includes articles discussing the state of the science and both qualitative and quantitative studies (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005).


Lee, M., Ryoo, J. H., Campbell, C., Hollen, P. J., & Williams, I. C. (2019). Exploring the challenges of medical/nursing tasks in home care experienced by caregivers of older adults with dementia: An integrative reviewJournal of clinical nursing28(23-24), 4177–4189.

Sinnett, F., & Franzsen, D. (2020). Clinical practice in occupational therapy for treatment of concussion in schoolboys: An integrative review. South African Journal of Occupational Therapy50(2), 62–69.

Breda, J. R., & Ribeiro, G. C. (2011). Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation: integrative reviewRevista brasileira de cirurgia cardiovascular : orgao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular26(3), 447–454.

Nakashima, H., & Gallegos, C. (2020). Journal Writing by Families of Critically Ill Patients: An Integrative Review. Critical Care Nurse40(5), 26–37.

Coyle, M., Al-Motlaq, M. A., Mills, J., Francis, K., & Birks, M. (2010). An integrative review of the role of registered nurses in remote and isolated practice. Australian health review : a publication of the Australian Hospital Association34(2), 239–245.

Mackenzie, S., & Foran, P. (2020). The impact of distractions and interruptions in the operating room on patient safety and the operating room team: An integrative reviewJournal of Perioperative Nursing33(3), e-34-e-43.

Qualitative Metasummary Examples

Qualitative Metasummary

A qualitative metasummary is a systematic review that synthesizes qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods studies by comparing similar data collected thematically (Sandelowski et al, 2007).


Sandelowski, M., Barroso, J., & Voils, C. I. (2007). Using qualitative metasummary to synthesize qualitative and quantitative descriptive findings. Research in nursing & health30(1), 99–111.

Holtslander, L., Baxter, S., Mills, K., Bocking, S., Dadgostari, T., Duggleby, W., Duncan, V., Hudson, P., Ogunkorode, A., & Peacock, S. (2017). Honoring the voices of bereaved caregivers: a Metasummary of qualitative researchBMC palliative care16(1), 48.

Friesen, L., & Andersen, E. (2019). Outcomes of collaborative and interdisciplinary palliative education for health care assistants: A qualitative metasummary. Journal of nursing management27(3), 461–481.

Suga, U. S., Terada, R. S., Ubaldini, A. L., Fujimaki, M., Pascotto, R. C., Batilana, A. P., Pietrobon, R., Vissoci, J. R., & Rodrigues, C. G. (2014). Factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures: systematic review and metasummaryPloS one9(10), e107831.

Pollock, M., Fernandes, R. M., Becker, L. A., Featherstone, R., & Hartling, L. (2016). What guidance is available for researchers conducting overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions? A scoping review and qualitative metasummary. Systematic reviews5(1), 190.

Ghirotto, L., Busani, E., Salvati, M., Di Marco, V., Caldarelli, V., & Artioli, G. (2019). Researching children's perspectives in pediatric palliative care: A systematic review and meta-summary of qualitative researchPalliative & supportive care17(1), 107–118.

Haggerty, J. L., Roberge, D., Freeman, G. K., & Beaulieu, C. (2013). Experienced continuity of care when patients see multiple clinicians: a qualitative metasummary. Annals of family medicine11(3), 262–271.